Showing posts with label Linux. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Linux. Show all posts

Friday, December 5, 2014

CURL error code 7 in php

Curl is one of most powerful functionality in PHP. It will allow us to communicate with external URL. To use the curl functionality in your code. We must enable PHP curl module in PHP installation.

In this post, i could like to explain about curl error code "7". There are some of the criteria to get this error.
  1. Due to wrong URL.
  2. URL might have some port on postfix.
    For Example: http://xx.xxx.xxx.xx:8080/
    Solution : To solve this issue, we must remove the port on URL.Your URL must be like http://xx.xxx.xxx.xx/

Friday, September 12, 2014

Libmemcached cinttypes problem on complie using gc++ complier for memcached library

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Problem
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The compilation failed on a configure without any options:
----
  CXX libhashkit/libhashkit_libhashkit_la-behavior.lo
  CXX libhashkit/libhashkit_libhashkit_la-crc32.lo
  CXX libhashkit/libhashkit_libhashkit_la-digest.lo
  CXX libhashkit/libhashkit_libhashkit_la-encrypt.lo
  CXX libhashkit/libhashkit_libhashkit_la-fnv_32.lo
  CXX libhashkit/libhashkit_libhashkit_la-fnv_64.lo
  CXX libhashkit/libhashkit_libhashkit_la-function.lo
  CXX libhashkit/libhashkit_libhashkit_la-has.lo
  CXX libhashkit/libhashkit_libhashkit_la-hashkit.lo
  CXX libhashkit/libhashkit_libhashkit_la-jenkins.lo
  CXX libhashkit/libhashkit_libhashkit_la-ketama.lo
  CXX libhashkit/libhashkit_libhashkit_la-md5.lo
  CXX libhashkit/libhashkit_libhashkit_la-murmur.lo
  CXX libhashkit/libhashkit_libhashkit_la-one_at_a_time.lo
  CXX libhashkit/libhashkit_libhashkit_la-rijndael.lo
  CXX libhashkit/libhashkit_libhashkit_la-str_algorithm.lo
  CXX libhashkit/libhashkit_libhashkit_la-strerror.lo
  CXX libhashkit/libhashkit_libhashkit_la-string.lo
  CXX libhashkit/libhashkit_libhashkit_la-nohsieh.lo
  CXXLD libhashkit/libhashkit.la
  CXX libmemcached/csl/libmemcached_libmemcached_la-context.lo
In file included from ./libmemcached/common.h:72,
                 from ./libmemcached/csl/common.h:40,
                 from libmemcached/csl/context.cc:38:
./libmemcached-1.0/memcached.h:46:27: error: tr1/cinttypes: No such file or directory
make[1]: *** [libmemcached/csl/libmemcached_libmemcached_la-context.lo] Error 1
make[1]: Leaving directory `/root/libmemcached/libmemcached-1.0.8'
make: *** [all] Error 2
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Solution
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
This issue occurs because of complier version problem. So we should the gc++ complier. Use below command to install gc++ improved version.

If you login with root previliage, you can use below command.

yum install gcc44 gcc44-c++ libstdc++44-devel

If your not root user, please user below command

sudo yum install gcc44 gcc44-c++ libstdc++44-devel

Once you have installed, compile the libmemcached using below command.

CC=gcc44 CXX=g++44 ./configure

Now your should be able to compile without issue.

How to add cron job in CentOS(UNIX/LINUX)

CRON Job is one of the most powerful system in UNIX system. Cron job will be execute by unix system by certain time interval on regular basis. It will allow to schedule your script to run on background without affecting your current task on UNIX machine. Here i will give you real time example for CentOS.

Cron jobs can be schedule on two different ways, System cron job and user defined cron jobs. System jobs will be defined by root privilege user. This will allow your unix system to perform there system related job on certain interval basis. User defined cron jobs can be defined by any of the user with their user privilege.

Location of crontab in CentOS - /etc/crontab

The below command will allow you to edit the cron file to add your job.

crontab -e

Here the syntax for adding your cron job into cron file.

1 2 3 4 5 /path/to/your-filename arg1 arg2

What is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5?

1 - Minute (0-59)
2 - Hours (0-23)
3 - Days of month(1-31)
4 - Month (1-12)
5 - Week days (0 -7)

You can pass your arguments with arg1, arg2 and argN

To list your cron jobs - crontab -l

To Remove all cron job - crontab -r

Saturday, April 5, 2014

How to use SCP command in windows

SCP command is one of the most powerful command in linux to transfer files in secure way. It can be use for windows.

Here the link to download link for windows.

After you download the file into you local machine. Please go to command prompt and go to location of pscp.exe. From there you need to execute the following commands to download and upload a file.

Please use below command to download file to local from server location.



Please use below command to upload file from local to server location.


Saturday, March 22, 2014

How to setup virtual host in apache2 on ubuntu OS

Virtual host is one of the beautiful option, which is provided by web servers. I have already shared the snacks about XAMPP virtual host creating process. I believe that snacks was tasty and delightful for your coding life.

Here, i am sharing another tasty snacks about Apache2 server virtual host, which is default server of most of linux OS. In order to create virtual host in your linux machine with apache2 server. First you have to place your project folder under root directory (/var/www/).

Create virtual host file in below location with tags

Step 1 : Go to cd /etc/apache2/sites-available/

Step 2 : cp default yoursitename.com

Step 3 : Open your file with following command

sudo gedit  yoursitename.com

Paste the below code into yoursitename.com file.

<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerAdmin test@test.com

    DocumentRoot /var/www/project-directory/
    ServerName yoursitename.com    

    ServerAlias www.yoursitename.com    
    ErrorLog /var/log/apache2/yoursitename.com-error_log
    CustomLog /var/log/apache2/yoursitename.com-access_log common
</VirtualHost>


Save and close the file.

Step 4 : Enable the site for local server

sudo a2ensite yoursitename.com

Step 5 : Finally add to hosts file.

sudo gedit /etc/hosts

Add below line into hosts file.

127.0.0.1   yoursitename.com

Now you can go to browser and type http://yoursitename.com.

Thursday, May 23, 2013

Skype can't connect error ubuntu

This article is more useful for skype users. Skype is generic chatting software. Sometimes you may be frustrated about skype error like "skype can't connect". This solution is only for Ubuntu users. Using this shell script, you can remove the old instance from your system, deleting the shared.xml which is tmp xml of every instance of skype and restarting the skype.

skype_error.sh

So, now we have build the shell script and saved. Next we have to execute the shell script. Please follow following steps to execute shell script in ubuntu.

Step 1 : Open teminal.
Step 2 : Go to your shell script saved path.
Step 3 : Put dot(.) with space give the shell scrip filename and press enter.

Example:
. skype_error.sh

Wednesday, December 19, 2012

Create virtual host in xampp on ubuntu

Step 1 - Adding VirtualHost feature to the Web Server

The first step is that you need to initiate the xampp virtual host will be enabled. To do this, simply uncomment the following line on /opt/lampp/etc/httpd.conf file.

# sudo gedit /opt/lampp/etc/httpd.conf
Uncomment the following line by removing '#'

Remove the asah(#) Change this line, as i given below

#Include etc/extra/httpd-vhosts.conf -> Include etc/extra/httpd-vhosts.conf


Step 2 - Adding your website to virtualhost configuration file

Next, you need to edit /opt/lampp/etc/extra/httpd-vhosts.conf file to add your website.

# sudo gedit /opt/lampp/etc/extra/httpd-vhosts.conf

Add the following text to the bottom of the file.

<VirtualHost *:80>
ServerAdmin webmaster@example.com
DocumentRoot /opt/lampp/htdocs/example
ServerName www.example.com
ErrorLog logs/www.example.com-error_log
CustomLog logs/www.example.com-access_log common
</VirtualHost>


Step 3 - Registering your new website

Add your new website to /etc/hosts file

# sudo gedit /etc/hosts
Add the following lines

127.0.0.1    localhost
127.0.0.1    www.example.com


Step 4 - Restart XAMPP and test your new website

Lastly, restart your xampp server

# sudo opt/lampp/lampp restart

Go to http://www.example.com to view your new website.

Wednesday, May 30, 2012

Intall Rabbit SVN for Ubuntu

This is Most popular SVN in Ubuntu Platform. I mean Linux platform. 
It will give the toretise SVN GUI in linux platform. It looks more user friendly.
  
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:rabbitvcs/ppa

Add the following line to your /etc/apt/sources.list file (signing key=1024R/34EF4A35):

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/rabbitvcs/ppa/ubuntu **DISTRIBUTION** main

You can use Synaptic to install packages or the command line. If you are using Synaptic, just search for the packages listed below. On the command line, you need to update your software package repositories with:
sudo apt-get update
And install it with:
sudo apt-get install «packages»
…where packages are
  • rabbitvcs-nautilus3 for the Nautilus 3.x extension (use this for Ubuntu 11.10, Oneiric Ocelot)
  • rabbitvcs-nautilus for the Nautilus 2.x extension
  • rabbitvcs-thunar for the Thunar extensions
  • rabbitvcs-gedit for the GEdit extension
  • rabbitvcs-cli for the command line launchers

Friday, May 11, 2012

Command for delete folder with files in linux

As we discuss early, we have plenty of linux command to learn. Recently, i faced a problem to delete a folder with files.Finally, i found the soultion to delete entire directory with files.

Remove is a command to delete a file or folder. With option of -rm we can delete entire directory with files.

Command :

remove -rm foldername

Thursday, May 10, 2012

ps and grep command in Linux

We have plenty of command to execute in linux platform and also those are very powerfull command. Here, i am going to give the demonstration of PS and Grep command with realtime example.

Here my scenario, I am going to kill the process of firefox which is running in my machine with out of memory.

Ps is basically process tracking command. -ef option will list out the process in detail.

Grep is fetching command. So, Here below command will fetch the firefox process running status in detail.

ps -ef | grep firefox

Monday, May 7, 2012

find and delete the particular files using file extension in linux

The below command generic command. Using this command we can remove particular extension file. Here, I illustarted the .svn files find and remove from the particular folder. So, here find the .svn extension from partiular folder and it will remove from the folder.

find . -name ".svn" -exec rm -rf {} \;

Monday, January 9, 2012

Basic vi Commands


What is vi?

The default editor that comes with the UNIX operating system is called vi (visual editor). [Alternate editors for UNIX environments include pico and emacs, a product of GNU.]
The UNIX vi editor is a full screen editor and has two modes of operation:
  1. Command mode commands which cause action to be taken on the file, and
  2. Insert mode in which entered text is inserted into the file.
In the command mode, every character typed is a command that does something to the text file being edited; a character typed in the command mode may even cause the vi editor to enter the insert mode. In the insert mode, every character typed is added to the text in the file; pressing the <Esc> (Escape) key turns off the Insert mode.
While there are a number of vi commands, just a handful of these is usually sufficient for beginning vi users. To assist such users, this Web page contains a sampling of basic vi commands. The most basic and useful commands are marked with an asterisk (* or star) in the tables below. With practice, these commands should become automatic.
NOTE: Both UNIX and vi are case-sensitive. Be sure not to use a capital letter in place of a lowercase letter; the results will not be what you expect.



To Get Into and Out Of vi


To Start vi

To use vi on a file, type in vi filename. If the file named filename exists, then the first page (or screen) of the file will be displayed; if the file does not exist, then an empty file and screen are created into which you may enter text.


* vi filename edit filename starting at line 1
  vi -r filename recover filename that was being edited when system crashed

To Exit vi


Usually the new or modified file is saved when you leave vi. However, it is also possible to quit vi without saving the file.
Note: The cursor moves to bottom of screen whenever a colon (:) is typed. This type of command is completed by hitting the <Return> (or <Enter>) key.


* :x<Return> quit vi, writing out modified file to file named in original invocation
  :wq<Return> quit vi, writing out modified file to file named in original invocation
  :q<Return> quit (or exit) vi
* :q!<Return> quit vi even though latest changes have not been saved for this vi call



Moving the Cursor

Unlike many of the PC and MacIntosh editors, the mouse does not move the cursor within the vi editor screen (or window). You must use the the key commands listed below. On some UNIX platforms, the arrow keys may be used as well; however, since vi was designed with the Qwerty keyboard (containing no arrow keys) in mind, the arrow keys sometimes produce strange effects in vi and should be avoided.
If you go back and forth between a PC environment and a UNIX environment, you may find that this dissimilarity in methods for cursor movement is the most frustrating difference between the two.
In the table below, the symbol ^ before a letter means that the <Ctrl> key should be held down while the letter key is pressed.


* j or <Return>
  [or down-arrow]
move cursor down one line
* k [or up-arrow] move cursor up one line
* h or <Backspace>
  [or left-arrow]
move cursor left one character
* l or <Space>
  [or right-arrow]
move cursor right one character
* 0 (zero) move cursor to start of current line (the one with the cursor)
* $ move cursor to end of current line
  w move cursor to beginning of next word
  b move cursor back to beginning of preceding word
  :0<Return> or 1G move cursor to first line in file
  :n<Return> or nG move cursor to line n
  :$<Return> or G move cursor to last line in file



Screen Manipulation

The following commands allow the vi editor screen (or window) to move up or down several lines and to be refreshed.


  ^f move forward one screen
  ^b move backward one screen
  ^d move down (forward) one half screen
  ^u move up (back) one half screen
  ^l redraws the screen
  ^r redraws the screen, removing deleted lines



Adding, Changing, and Deleting Text

Unlike PC editors, you cannot replace or delete text by highlighting it with the mouse. Instead use the commands in the following tables.
Perhaps the most important command is the one that allows you to back up and undo your last action. Unfortunately, this command acts like a toggle, undoing and redoing your most recent action. You cannot go back more than one step.


* u UNDO WHATEVER YOU JUST DID; a simple toggle

The main purpose of an editor is to create, add, or modify text for a file.

Inserting or Adding Text

The following commands allow you to insert and add text. Each of these commands puts the vi editor into insert mode; thus, the <Esc> key must be pressed to terminate the entry of text and to put the vi editor back into command mode.

* i insert text before cursor, until <Esc> hit
  I insert text at beginning of current line, until <Esc> hit
* a append text after cursor, until <Esc> hit
  A append text to end of current line, until <Esc> hit
* o open and put text in a new line below current line, until <Esc> hit
* O open and put text in a new line above current line, until <Esc> hit

Changing Text

The following commands allow you to modify text.

* r replace single character under cursor (no <Esc> needed)
  R replace characters, starting with current cursor position, until <Esc> hit
  cw change the current word with new text,
starting with the character under cursor, until <Esc> hit
  cNw change N words beginning with character under cursor, until <Esc> hit;
  e.g., c5w changes 5 words
  C change (replace) the characters in the current line, until <Esc> hit
  cc change (replace) the entire current line, stopping when <Esc> is hit
  Ncc or cNc change (replace) the next N lines, starting with the current line,
stopping when <Esc> is hit

Deleting Text

The following commands allow you to delete text.

* x delete single character under cursor
  Nx delete N characters, starting with character under cursor
  dw delete the single word beginning with character under cursor
  dNw delete N words beginning with character under cursor;
  e.g., d5w deletes 5 words
  D delete the remainder of the line, starting with current cursor position
* dd delete entire current line
  Ndd or dNd delete N lines, beginning with the current line;
  e.g., 5dd deletes 5 lines

Cutting and Pasting Text

The following commands allow you to copy and paste text.

  yy copy (yank, cut) the current line into the buffer
  Nyy or yNy copy (yank, cut) the next N lines, including the current line, into the buffer
  p put (paste) the line(s) in the buffer into the text after the current line



Other Commands


Searching Text

A common occurrence in text editing is to replace one word or phase by another. To locate instances of particular sets of characters (or strings), use the following commands.

  /string search forward for occurrence of string in text
  ?string search backward for occurrence of string in text
  n move to next occurrence of search string
  N move to next occurrence of search string in opposite direction

Determining Line Numbers

Being able to determine the line number of the current line or the total number of lines in the file being edited is sometimes useful.

  :.= returns line number of current line at bottom of screen
  := returns the total number of lines at bottom of screen
  ^g provides the current line number, along with the total number of lines,
in the file at the bottom of the screen



Saving and Reading Files

These commands permit you to input and output files other than the named file with which you are currently working.


  :r filename<Return> read file named filename and insert after current line
(the line with cursor)
  :w<Return> write current contents to file named in original vi call
  :w newfile<Return> write current contents to a new file named newfile
  :12,35w smallfile<Return> write the contents of the lines numbered 12 through 35 to a new file named smallfile
  :w! prevfile<Return> write current contents over a pre-existing file named prevfile

Monday, October 10, 2011

Things To Do.... After installing Ubuntu 9.04 aka Jaunty


This post is a follow up of this. In Ubuntu Jaunty Jackalope , as you would expect from any upgrade, the packages are a bit different, so i decided to write the Jaunty’s To Do List on its own. So here you go :

1 – Expand the Software Repository List
First of all, lets make Ubuntu “see” more packages. Go to the terminal and edit your sources.list with :

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
Here is the content of my sources.list which I think is quite complete to have all the necessary applications you could ever need. So delete the whole content of your sources list and replace it with the content of mine
Save it. Go to the Terminal and type:

sudo apt-get upgrade

Now all your programs will run on the last version.

2 – Anti-Virus
Windows equivalent : AVG AntiVirus, NAV, TrendMicro, F-Prot, Kaspersky, …
Ubuntu equivalent : Avast
Avast

wget http://files.avast.com/files/linux/avast4workstation_1.3.0-2_i386.deb && sudo dpkg -i avast4workstation_1.3.0-2_i386.deb

Access it through Accessories → avast! Antivirus .

3 – Essential tools for compiling from sources

sudo apt-get install build-essential checkinstall cdbs devscripts dh-make fakeroot libxml-parser-perl check avahi-daemon

4 – Java runtime environment
Java is a very important thing to install, now that many programs like Azureus need it to run. So type:

sudo apt-get install sun-java6-fonts sun-java6-jre sun-java6-plugin equivs ttf-sazanami-gothic ttf-sazanami-mincho

5 – More Fonts
Here you will find a bunch of fonts you can install on your system, but remember that you don’t need to install all of them

sudo mkdir -p /usr/lib/X11/fonts/Type1 && sudo apt-get install msttcorefonts && sudo apt-get install ttf-larabie-straight ttf-larabie-deco mplayer-fonts xfonts-terminus-dos xfonts-terminus xfonts-terminus-oblique xfonts-mona tv-fonts ttf-tuffy ttf-sjfonts ttf-sil-padauk ttf-sil-ezra ttf-paktype ttf-georgewilliams ttf-fifthhorseman-dkg-handwriting ttf-farsiweb ttf-essays1743 ttf-opensymbol ttf-nafees ttf-mgopen ttf-gentium ttf-freefont ttf-dustin ttf-devanagari-fonts ttf-dejavu-extra ttf-dejavu-core ttf-dejavu ttf-bpg-georgian-fonts ttf-bitstream-vera ttf-alee



6 – Ubuntu Control Panel
Ubuntu Tweak
Ubuntu Tweak allows you to tweak your system settings, all in one place. You can install new applications, customize your desktop settings, configure your startup applications, changing the system filetype association and many more tweaks in this single application.

sudo apt-get install ubuntu-tweak
Then access it through Applications → System Tools → Ubuntu Tweak

7 – Nice Right Click Sub-Menus
For some useful right click menus in nautilus

sudo apt-get install nautilus-actions nautilus-gksu nautilus-image-converter nautilus-open-terminal nautilus-script-audio-convert nautilus-script-collection-svn nautilus-script-manager nautilus-sendto nautilus-share nautilus-wallpaper

App Runner

App Runner is a small open source utility that makes it very easy to run any type of program/executable/script on any distro/OS that uses the nautilus file manager: Debian/Ubuntu/Super OS/Fedora/etc

wget http://hacktolive.org/files/app_runner/App_Runner_0.2.deb && sudo dpkg -i App_Runner_0.2.deb
Then right-click the file -> Scripts -> Run This App or Run This App (root)

8 – Multimedia
Windows equivalent : windows media player, real player, vlc, mplayer
Ubuntu equivalent : vlc, mplayer, helix player
To have Ubuntu playing all kinds of stuff, you need to install many codecs. So on the Terminal, type:
* Installing vlc and mplayer (plays almost everything):

sudo apt-get install vlc mplayer
* Common packs

sudo apt-get install non-free-codecs libxine1-ffmpeg gxine mencoder mpeg2dec vorbis-tools id3v2 mpg321 mpg123 libflac++6 ffmpeg toolame libmp4v2-0 totem-mozilla icedax tagtool easytag id3tool lame nautilus-script-audio-convert mozilla-helix-player helix-player libmad0 libjpeg-progs libmpcdec3 libquicktime1 flac faac faad sox toolame ffmpeg2theora libmpeg2-4 uudeview flac libmpeg3-1 mpeg3-utils mpegdemux liba52-dev
* Gstreammer 0.10

sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.10-ffmpeg gstreamer0.10-fluendo-mp3 gstreamer0.10-fluendo-mpegdemux gstreamer0.10-gnonlin gstreamer0.10-pitfdll gstreamer0.10-sdl gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad-multiverse gstreamer0.10-schroedinger gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly-multiverse totem-gstreamer
* More programs

sudo apt-get install gstreamer-dbus-media-service gstreamer-tools ubuntu-restricted-extras
* Enable dvd support

sudo aptitude install libdvdcss2 && sudo /usr/share/doc/libdvdread4/./install-css.sh
* Flash

sudo apt-get install gsfonts gsfonts-x11 flashplugin-nonfree



9. Tweak your eyecandy
Ubuntu 9.04 comes with compiz fusion effects OOTB but doesn’t offer a way to customize them.
In a terminal copy/paste this:

sudo apt-get install simple-ccsm
Now navigate to System → Preferences → Simple CompizConfig Settings Manager .

10 – Missing Windows software?? Run Windows softwares in Linux!!!
Wine
Wine is a compatibility layer for running Windows programs in Linux.

sudo apt-get install wine
Then just double click .exe file.
Note: Not all windows software can run.A list is available in the website.

11 – Play Windows Games in Linux
Install PlayonLinux.Games like world of warcraft ,counterstrike and many other can be played.Playonlinux is based on wine.
Click here for list of games available

sudo apt-get install playonlinux



12 – Clipboard Management
By Default in ubuntu when u copy something from an application and closes the application u will not be able to access it from the clipboard. And also when u copy severals text in serial u only have the last on available to you in the clipboard. To solve that install either of the following but Glipper is better because it supports plugins.
Glipper

sudo apt-get install glipper
Then right click ur panel → Add to Panel then drag Clipboard Manager to ur panel
Parcellite

sudo apt-get install parcellite



13 – Archiver/ Packing software
Windows equivalent : winrar, zip, 7zip
Ubuntu equivalent : tar, unrar, p7zip, arj, unace
It’s bad when you don’t have Internet on your computer/notebook, but you have to pack/unpack something but the file format isn’t recognized by the system. To codevent from this bad situation, you can install a bunch of packing software by typing this on the terminal:

sudo apt-get install unace rar unrar zip unzip p7zip-full p7zip-rar sharutils aish uudeview mpack lha arj cabextract file-roller



14 – Graphical web browser
Windows equivalent : Internet explorer, firefox, opera
Ubuntu equivalent : Firefox, opera
Opera

sudo apt-get install opera

Firefox (installed by default intrepid)

sudo apt-get install firefox



15 – Download Manager
Windows equivalent : Free download manager
Ubuntu equivalent : Multiget
MultiGet is a http/ftp downloader with a nice GUI for linux desktop users. It can run on almost all desktops without any configuration. It has many powerful functions comparing to others.

sudo apt-get install multiget
Access it through Applications → Internet → MultiGet .

16 – Graphical Email client
Windows equivalent : Outlook
Ubuntu equivalent : Evolution, Thunderbird
Evolution (installed by default in intrepid)

sudo apt-get install evolution
Access it through Applications → Internet → Evolution Mail .
Thunderbird

sudo apt-get install thunderbird
Access it through Applications → Internet → Mozilla Thunderbird Mail/News .

17 – Instant Messanging protocal clients
Windows equivalent : MSN messenger, Yahoo messenger, QQ, AIM, Gtalk, ICQ,IRC
Ubuntu equivalent : Pidgin, emesene
Pidgin (installed by default in intrepid)
Pidgin is an easy to use and free chat client used by millions. Connect to AIM, MSN, Yahoo, and more chat networks all at once. Supported chat networks: AIM, Bonjour, Gadu-Gadu, Google Talk, Groupwise, ICQ, IRC, MSN, MySpaceIM, QQ, SILC, SIMPLE, Sametime, XMPP, Yahoo!, Zephyr

sudo apt-get install pidgin pidgin-data pidgin-lastfm pidgin-guifications msn-pecan pidgin-musictracker pidgin-plugin-pack pidgin-themes
Access it through Applications → Internet → Pidgin Internet Messenger .
Emesene only for MSN Messenger.

sudo apt-get install emesene
Access it through Applications → Internet → Emesene .

18 – VOIP
Windows equivalent : skype
Ubuntu equivalent : skype, ekiga
Skype

sudo apt-get install skype
Access it through Applications → Internet → Skype.
Ekiga (installed by default in intrepid)

sudo apt-get install ekiga
Access it through Applications → Internet → Ekiga SoftPhone.

19 – Viewing PDF files
Windows equivalent : Adobe Reader
Ubuntu equivalent : Adobe Reader
Adobe Reader

sudo apt-get install acroread acroread-fonts
Access it through Applications → Office → Adobe Reader.

20– Adobe Air
wget http://airdownload.adobe.com/air/lin/download/latest/AdobeAIRInstaller.bin

chmod +x . /AdobeAIRInstaller.bin
./AdobeAIRInstaller.bin

Access it through Applications → Accessories → Adobe Air Application Installer.

21 – Music / MP3 / OGG Players
Windows equivalent : iTunes, Winamp
Ubuntu equivalent : Rhythmbox, Amarok
Rhythmbox

sudo apt-get install rhythmbox
Access it through Applications → Sound & Video → Rhythmbox Music Player.
Amarok

sudo apt-get install amarok amarok-common
Access it through Applications → Sound & Video → Amarok.

22 – Hard Disk Partitions Manager
Windows equivalent : Symanted Partition Magic
Ubuntu equivalent : GParted, Disk-Manager
GParted

sudo apt-get install gparted ntfsprogs
Access it through System → Administration → Partition Editor.

23 – Vector Graphics Editor
Windows equivalent : Adobe Illustrator
Ubuntu equivalent : Inkscape
Inkscape

sudo apt-get install inkscape
Access it through Applications → Graphics → Inkscape Vector Graphics Editor.

24 – Image Editor
Windows equivalent : Adobe Photoshop
Ubuntu equivalent : GIMP
GIMP

sudo apt-get install gimp gimp-data gimp-plugin-registry
Access it through Applications → Graphics → GIMP Image Editor.

25 – 3D Graphics Applications
Windows equivalent : 3D Studio MAX
Ubuntu equivalent : Blender
Blender

sudo apt-get install blender
Access it through Applications → Graphics → Blender (windowed).

26 – Simple Yet Advanced Text Editor
Windows equivalent : Notepad ++
Ubuntu equivalent : GEdit
GEdit

sudo apt-get install gedit gedit-plugins
Access it through Applications → Accessories → Text Editor.

27 – Office Applications
Windows equivalent : Microsoft Office
Ubuntu equivalent : OpenOffice
OpenOffice

sudo apt-get install openoffice.org
Access it through Applications → Office

28 – Microsoft Visio
Windows equivalent : Microsoft Visio
Ubuntu equivalent : Dia
Dia

sudo apt-get install dia
Access it through Applications → Graphics → Dia Diagram Editor

29 – Microsoft Project
Windows equivalent : Microsoft Project
Ubuntu equivalent : OpenProj
OpenProj

wget http://nchc.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/openproj/openproj_1.4-2.deb && sudo dpkg -i openproj_1.4-2.deb
Access it through Applications → Office → OpenProj

30 – Development IDE
Windows equivalent : Dreamweaver
Ubuntu equivalent : Quanta, Kompozer, NetBeans
Quanta

sudo apt-get install quanta
Access it through Applications → Programming → Quanta Plus
Komposer

sudo apt-get install kompozer nvu
Access it through Applications → Internet → Kompozer
NetBeans

sudo apt-get install netbeans
Access it through Applications → Programming → NetBeans IDE

31 – Graphical FTP clients
Windows equivalent : CuteFTP, SmartFTP
Ubuntu equivalent : FileZilla
FileZilla
This is great FTP program, very complete, in my opinion, the best one for linux.
On the terminal type:

sudo apt-get install filezilla filezilla-common
Access it through Applications → Internet → FileZilla FTP Client.

32 – P2P Clients / Servers, File Sharing
Windows equivalent : utorrent, azureus, emule
Ubuntu equivalent : Deluge, azureus, amule
Bittorent clients
Deluge (written in python)

sudo apt-get install deluge-torrent
Access it through Applications → Internet → Deluge Torrent.
Azureus: Uses Java to run, very complete but a bit heavy

sudo apt-get install azureus
Access it through Applications → Internet → Azureus.
Emule Donkey Clients
Amule

sudo apt-get install amule
Access it through Applications → Internet → aMule.

33 – Programs for CD burning with GUI
Windows equivalent : Nero, Roxio Easy CD Creator
Ubuntu equivalent : K3b, Brasero
K3b
Nero is available for linux,but its not free.A trial is available for 1 month usage and later it asks or activation code.But K3B is as good as Nero.Have a good feature set as Nero.

sudo apt-get install k3b k3b-data k3b-i18n libk3b3
Access it through Applications → Sound & Video → K3B.
Brasero (installed by default in Intrepid)

sudo apt-get install brasero
Access it through Applications → Sound & Video → Brasero Disc Burning .

34 – Mountings ISO files
Windows equivalent : Alcohol
Ubuntu equivalent : acetoneiso
Acetoneiso
The best one for linux ACETONEISO,which is similar to ALCOHOL in windows
its supports almost all formats. AcetoneISO is CD/DVD image manipulator for Linux.Using this tool it is very easy to Mount and Unmount ISO,MDF,NRG Images . I dont think its available in ubuntu repository.
sudo apt-get install libksba8 libenca0 libtwolame0 fuseiso kommander p7zip-full gnupg-agent gnupg2 pinentry-qt mencoder cdrdao libqt4-webkit libphonon4 phonon phonon-backend-gstreamer

wget http://darkstar.ist.utl.pt/getdeb/ubuntu/jaunty/ac/acetoneiso_2.0.3.1-1~getdeb1_i386.deb && sudo dpkg -i acetoneiso_2.0.3.1-1~getdeb1_i386.deb
Access it via Sound & Videos -> AcetoneISO


35 – Install Vista like gadgets.
Windows equivalent : Vista Sidebar
Ubuntu equivalent : google-gadgets
Google gadgets

wget http://neacm.fe.up.pt/pub/getdeb/ubuntu/intrepid/go/google-gadgets_0.10.5-1~getdeb2_i386.deb && sudo dpkg -i google-gadgets_0.10.5-1~getdeb2_i386.deb
This will complete the installation.
Now press Alt+F2, and type “ggl-gtk” to start them. You should see a small icon show up in your system tray, and a sidebar. Right click on any of them and select ‘Add Gadgets’ to show a menu. If you’d like to have Google Gadgets start automatically, go to System – Preferences – Session, click ‘Add’, paste ‘Google Gadgets’ for the name and ‘ggl-gtk’ for the command. Click OK and Close, and you’re good to go.

36 – Google Desktop
Google Desktop allows one to full text search of a user’s e-mail, computer files, music, photos, chat, and Web pages viewed,OpenOffice documents , PDF files and more .
Now similar tools already existed on Linux like beagle (supported by novell ) , meta tracker etc . However Google Desktop search is not based on any of these tools and uses its proprietary algorithms to search for files on the computer ,also being 1.0 release and more stable then these products it could be preferred over tools like beagle .
To install Google Desktop Search type the following command in the terminal window : -

sudo apt-get install google-desktop-linux
Access it through Applications → Google Desktop → Google Desktop
Now after choosing appropriate option through Applications → Google Desktop → Google Desktop Preferences, you would find Google Desktop icon in the bar at the top of the screen , now it would automatically scan and index files on computer and store it in local database which could be searched using web browser .

37 – Photo Management
Google Picasa
Google Picasa is an extremely professional good looking photo management application available on Windows ,Linux and Mac OS (??) . Now Google Picasa has a number of features that many photo management software on Linux dont have further Google Picasa looks very user friendly as compared to similar open source application available on linux . Now Google Picasa for Linux is not a native linux application but runs on Linux thru application layer called wine which allows many windows application to run flawlessly on Linux.
Now to install Google – Picasa type the following command in the terminal window

sudo apt-get install picasa
Access it through Applications → Graphics → Picasa → Picasa

38 – Map Viewing and Management
Google Earth
To install Google Earth type the following command in the Terminal Window.

sudo aptitude install googleearth
After downloading is over you will get a screen like this press ¨Yes¨ to accept the license agreement and complete software installation.
Now you can launch Google Earth from Application → Internet → Google Earth

39 – Gmail Notification

Checkgmail
If you would like to get notified when you have a new mail in your google mail account, checkgmail is for you. To install Checkgmail type the following command in the Terminal Window.

sudo apt-get install checkgmail
Now you can launch it from Application → Internet → CheckGmail

40 – Configure Firewall
If you are concern about your security, then it is pertinent that you activate the firewall and prevent any unauthorized access to your computer.
UFW is installed by default, but if you need a graphical interface, install GUFW.

sudo apt-get install gufw


41 – Gnome Do
Gnome Do is a small application that allows you to search and do things faster and more efficiently in your Ubuntu machine. It is similar to QuickSilver in Mac and Launchy in Windows. For those who have not tried Gnome Do before, it might take some time for you to get used to it. But once you’re hooked to it, there will be no turning back for you.Gnome Do also comes with a dock interface that you can use it like any other docks.
sudo apt-get install gnome-do
Now you can launch it from Application → Accessories → Gnome Do